Journal of Mid-life Health Journal of Mid-life Health
Home | About us | Editorial board | Search | Ahead of print | Current Issue | Past Issues | Instructions | Online submission | Subscribe | Advertise Users Online: 355  Print this pageEmail this pageSmall font sizeDefault font sizeIncrease font size 

Year : 2018  |  Volume : 9  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 117-122

Prevalence of osteoporosis in peri- and post-menopausal women in slum area of Mumbai, India

1 Department of Orthopaedics, INHS Asvini, Colaba, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
2 Department of Pathology, 151 Base Hospital, Guwahati, Assam, India

Correspondence Address:
Sanjay Kumar Rai
Department of Orthopaedics, INHS Asvini, Colaba, Mumbai - 400 005, Maharashtra
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jmh.JMH_84_17

Rights and Permissions

Objective: We conducted our study involving 1400 peri- and post-menopausal women who live in a slum area of Mumbai to determine the prevalence of osteoporosis, awareness about osteoporosis, education (knowledge regarding osteoporosis), treatment and prevention of osteoporosis. Material and Methods: A detailed medical, surgical, obstetrical & gynecological, menstrual, and drug history was recorded in a predesigned questionnaire designated for the study. Height and weight and body mass index were measured, physical activity level especially load bearing exercise was recorded, and amount of sunlight exposure per day was also recorded. Food intake was estimated using the 24 h dietary recall method and calcium and Vitamin D consumption pattern was assessed. We used calcaneum quantitative ultrasound to assess bone mineral density (BMD) for such large population. Results: The prevalence of low BMD was found in more than half of this population (81%). The mean age in Group I was found to be 36.50 ± 2.74 years as compared to 37.5 ± 3.44 years in Group II with low BMD, which was statistically significant (P = 0.02). The average age at menopause was 51.62 ± 5.72 years in Group I and 49.43 ± 4.52 years in Group II. The number of children and type of menopause has been found to be associated with low BMD in our study. Lack of physical exercise and low-calcium diet were significantly associated with low BMD. Conclusion: Our study showed that there is a high prevalence of Vitamin D deficiency and Osteoporosis even in adult women who live in a slum area. The findings from the study also suggest the need for large community-based studies so that high-risk population can be picked up early and early interventions and other lifestyle changes can be instituted so that no delay in implementing state and national or international health policy to tackle this increasing global health problem. The public awareness is important, and strategies to identify and manage low BMD in the primary care setting needs to be established and implemented.

Print this article     Email this article
 Next article
 Previous article
 Table of Contents

 Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
 Citation Manager
 Access Statistics
 Reader Comments
 Email Alert *
 Add to My List *
 * Requires registration (Free)

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded608    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 1    

Recommend this journal