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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 11  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 240-249

COVID-19 and menstrual status: Is menopause an independent risk factor for SARS Cov-2?


1 Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Government Institute of Medical Sciences, Greater Noida, Uttar Pradesh, India
2 Department of Community Medicine, AIIMS, New Delhi, India
3 Department of Medicine, Government Institute of Medical Sciences, Greater Noida, Uttar Pradesh, India

Correspondence Address:
Shikha Seth
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Government Institute of Medical Sciences, Greater Noida, Uttar Pradesh
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jmh.JMH_288_20

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Background: COVID-19 has shown a definite association with gender, a predilection for males in terms of morbidity and mortality. The indirect evidence of the protective effect of estrogen has been shown by Channappanavar, in the animal model and Ding T. in a multihospital study from China, suggesting menopause as independent risk factor and estrogen is negatively correlated with severity. Objective: Study the clinical profile and outcomes in premenopausal and menopausal. Covid-19-infected women and analyzed the effect of menstrual status on the outcome. Materials and Methods: A retrospective cohort study conducted on 147 mild and moderate category COVID-19 females admitted between May and August 2020 using hospital records and telephonic follow-up. Two groups formed based on menstrual status: group-1 (premenopausal/estrogenic) and Group-2 (menopausal/hypoestrogenic). Hospital stay duration was considered as primary, while the category of disease on admission, clinical course, the requirement of oxygen, and mortality and residual symptoms were taken as a secondary outcome to compare the groups. Results: Overall Group-1 had significantly more of mild disease, while Group-2 had moderate cases (39 [76.5%] vs. 14 [14.6%] P < 0.01). Menopausal group has significantly more requirement of oxygen (32 [62.7%] vs. 20 [20.8%]), ventilation (14 [27.5%] vs. 1 [1%]) progression-to-severe disease (23.5% vs. 7.3%) and prolonged hospital stay ([14.1 ± 8.9 vs. 8.6 ± 3.9 days] P < 0.01). However, multivariate logistic regression failed to show a significant association between hospital stay and progression with menopause. Ferritin and residual symptoms found significantly higher in menopausal. Conclusions: No definite association was found between menopause and COVID-19 outcome with hospital stay duration or disease progression in our study.


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