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MINI REVIEW
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 12  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 21-29

A mini-review of office hysteroscopic techniques for endometrial tissue sampling in postmenopausal bleeding


1 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Del Mar University Hospital, Barcelona, Spain
2 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Tanvir Hospital, Hyderabad, Telangana, India

Correspondence Address:
Tanvir Tanvir
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Tanvir Hospital, Hyderabad, Telangana
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jmh.jmh_42_21

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Postmenopausal bleeding (PMB) is a common cause for a gynecological visit. Endometrial cancer risk varies from 3% to 25% in women with PMB. There is a significant concern of malignancy of the endometrium and the endocervical canal by a physician in postmenopausal women, and hence, most prefer operating room hysteroscopies with dilation and curettage (D & C) compared to in-office procedures. With increased availablility of miniaturized instruments such as mini- resectoscope and tissue removal systems, there is high likelihood of blind D & C being replaced by hysteroscopic- guided targetted biopsy or visual D & C. The cost-effectiveness of office hysteroscopy is also well demonstrated. In December 2020, an electronic search was performed of PubMed, MEDLINE, and Cochrane Library to look for articles on office hysteroscopic biopsy techniques in postmenopausal women from 2010 to 2020. Relevant studies were included where various office hysteroscopic techniques are used for endometrial sampling in PMB. Studies with 5 Fr scissors, biopsy forceps, crocodile forceps, cup forceps, bipolar electrode, in-office tissue removal system (morcellator), flexible hysteroscope, and mini-resectoscope were included. Standard reference was used as an adequate endometrial sample for histology. The objective of this review is to explore the current evidence on different office hysteroscopic techniques available for endometrial tissue sampling in PMB. Research Question: What are the different available in - office hysteroscopy techniques for obtaining endometrial biopsy? Clinical Importance: Understanding the adequacy of an endometrial tissue sample obtained by different in - office hysteroscopy techniques and their accuracy by histology.


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