Journal of Mid-life Health Journal of Mid-life Health
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Year : 2021  |  Volume : 12  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 155-160

Sex hormone-binding globulins and testosterone levels as a risk marker for type 2 diabetes mellitus among postmenopausal women

1 Department of Endocrinology, Guahati Medical College, Guwahati, Assam, India
2 Department of Endocrinology, Medical College, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India

Correspondence Address:
Darvin V Das
Department of Endocrinology, Medical College, hiruvananthapuram, Kerala
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jmh.JMH_142_20

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Background: Endogenous sex hormones and sex hormone-binding globulins (SHBG) determine the risk of occurrence of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in postmenopausal (PM) women. Aims: To investigate the association between sex hormones (estradiol and testosterone) and SHBG with plasma glucose, fasting insulin levels, HbA1c, and homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and also to investigate independent role of sex hormones in the occurrence of T2DM among PM. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional case–control study. Subjects and Methods: The present study was conducted in Endocrinology department Guwahati, Medical College, Assam, India. The participants included cases – PM women with T2DM (n = 100) and controls – Healthy PM women (n = 86). The medical history, clinical examination, and investigations including total testosterone, serum estradiol, SHBG, free testosterone index, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), lipid profile, fasting insulin, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and postprandial plasma glucose (PPPG) were done and analyzed. HOMA-IR was calculated. Statistical Analysis: Pearson correlation between sex hormone level and SHBG with plasma glucose, HbA1c, fasting insulin, hs-CRP, and HOMA-IR was seen. Multivariance logistic analysis was done to find the independent association between sex hormones/SHBG and the occurrence of T2 DM. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Among the cases, a significant positive correlation was found between total testosterone/free testosterone index with waist circumference, FPG PPPG, HbA1c, fasting insulin, and HOMA-IR, and a significant negative correlation was found between SHBG and FPG, PPPG, HbA1c, fasting insulin, and HOMA-IR (P < 0.01). The logistic analysis showed total testosterone levels and SHBG are independently associated with the occurrence of T2 DM among PM (P < 0.01). Conclusion: SHBG and testosterone levels in PM can be a risk marker for the development of T2DM.

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