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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 12  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 225-231

Cardiovascular disease risk factors and 10 year risk of cardiovascular events among women over the age of 40 years in an urban underprivileged area of Bangalore City


Department of Community Health, St. John's Medical College, Bangalore, India

Correspondence Address:
Nancy Angeline Gnanaselvam
Department of Community Health, St. John's Medical College, Bangalore
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jmh.jmh_219_20

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Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the leading causes of death among Indian women but not a focus of current strategies to improve women's health. Objectives: To assess 10-year CVD risk and estimate the prevalence of CVD risk factors among underprivileged women. Methods: A cross-sectional study among women aged 40–79 years in an urban underprivileged area of Bangalore city, using nonlaboratory-based World Health Organization and the International Society of Hypertension risk prediction chart and INTERHEART list of CVD risk factors. Blood pressure, random blood sugar, height, weight, and waist circumference were measured. The Chi-square test was done for the association between CVD risk status and risk factors. Multiple logistic regression performed to calculate adjusted odds ratios (ORs). Results: Of 1027 women, 11% women had high risk of CVD (≥20% risk of fatal/nonfatal cardiovascular event within next 10 years). The prevalence of CVD risk factors was high with 20.2% diabetes, 53.7% hypertension, 77% overweight/obesity, and 92% central obesity. Majority were physically inactive with unhealthy diet, lacking daily fruits and vegetables, excess consumption of salty food, junk food, red meat, and excess oil. Significantly higher CVD risk found among women who were sedentary during leisure time (P = 0.028), single/separated/widowed women (OR = 1.84 [1.26–4.29] P = 0.002), and women who did not walk or cycle as a regular means of transport (OR = 1.47 [1.98–2.19] P = 0.041). Conclusion: High risk of CVD among underprivileged women reveals an urgent need for community-based interventions for prevention of CVD. Screening and management of diabetes and hypertension must include weight reduction and health education strategies. Policy-makers need to initiate efforts toward improving affordability of healthy diets for the urban underprivileged.


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