Journal of Mid-life Health Journal of Mid-life Health
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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2013| July-September  | Volume 4 | Issue 3  
    Online since September 26, 2013

 
 
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REVIEW ARTICLES
The role of oxidative stress in menopause
Sejal B Doshi, Ashok Agarwal
July-September 2013, 4(3):140-146
DOI:10.4103/0976-7800.118990  PMID:24672185
This review will discuss the concept of reproductive aging, which includes the definition of menopause, its symptoms, and predisposing conditions. It will elaborate upon the contributory factors implicated in the pathogenesis of menopause, focusing most prominently on oxidative stress. Specifically, this paper will explain how oxidative stress, in the form of free radicals and antioxidant deficiencies, has been directly linked to the decline of estrogen during reproductive aging. Additionally, this paper will elaborate upon the treatment options aimed at mitigating the menopausal symptoms and hormonal deficiencies that can lead to various disease processes. Treatment options such as hormonal therapy, antioxidant supplementation, and lifestyle modification have been explored for their effectiveness in treating and preventing the symptoms and sequelae of menopause. The majority of information in this review was obtained through PubMed and the National Library of Medicine. While most references in this paper are original research articles, a limited number of references are comprehensive reviews on the topic.
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Emerging therapies for the treatment of osteoporosis
Garima Bhutani, Mahesh Chander Gupta
July-September 2013, 4(3):147-152
DOI:10.4103/0976-7800.118991  PMID:24672186
Osteoporosis is a chronic disease of the osseous system characterized by decreased bone strength and increased fracture risk. It is due to an imbalance in the dynamic ongoing processes of bone formation and bone resorption. Currently available osteoporosis therapies like bisphosphonates, selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), and denosumab are anti-resorptive agents. Parathyroid hormone analogs like teriparatide are the only anabolic agents currently approved for osteoporosis treatment. The side-effects and limited efficacy of the presently available therapies has encouraged extensive research into the pathophysiology of the disease and newer drug targets for its treatment. The novel anti-resorptive agents being developed are newer SERMs, osteoprotegerin, c-src (cellular-sarcoma) kinase inhibitors, αVβ3 integrin antagonists, cathepsin K inhibitors, chloride channel inhibitors, and nitrates. Upcoming anabolic agents include calcilytics, antibodies against sclerostin and Dickkopf-1, statins, matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein fragments activin inhibitiors, and endo-cannabinoid agonists. Many of these new drugs are still in development. This article provides an insight into the emerging drugs for the treatment of osteoporosis.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Study of menopausal symptoms, and perceptions about menopause among women at a rural community in Kerala
Sagar A Borker, PP Venugopalan, Shruthi N Bhat
July-September 2013, 4(3):182-187
DOI:10.4103/0976-7800.118997  PMID:24672192
Background: Menopausal health demands priority in Indian scenario due to increase in life expectancy and growing population of menopausal women. Most are either unaware or do not pay adequate attention to these symptoms. Aims: To find the prevalence of menopausal symptoms and perceptions regarding menopause among menopausal women of Kerala. Settings and Design: A community based cross-sectional house to house survey was conducted at Anjarakandy a field practice area under Kannur Medical College, Anjarakandy. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted among 106 postmenopausal women staying more than 6 months at Anjarakandy with the help of pretested questionnaire administered by a trained social worker from January to October 2009. Before that a pilot study was conducted and required sample size of 100 was calculated. Random sampling of houses was done. Statistical Analysis: Data was coded, entered, and analyzed using SPSS 15. Chi-square test, proportions, and percentages were used. Results: The mean age of attaining menopause was 48.26 years. Prevalence of symptoms among ladies were emotional problems (crying spells, depression, irritability) 90.7%, headache 72.9%, lethargy 65.4%, dysuria 58.9%, forgetfulness 57%, musculoskeletal problems (joint pain, muscle pain) 53.3%, sexual problems (decreased libido, dyspareunia) 31.8%, genital problems (itching, vaginal dryness) 9.3%, and changes in voice 8.4%. Only 22.4% of women knew the correct cause of menopause. Conclusions: Thus study stated that all the ladies were suffering from one or more number of menopausal symptoms. Ladies should be made aware of these symptoms, their causes and treatment respectively.
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Comparison of sexual dysfunction between diabetic and non-diabetic women
Narges Shams Alizadeh, Modabber Arasteh, Behzad Mohsenpour, Farzaneh Karimian, Nasim Shams Alizadeh
July-September 2013, 4(3):167-171
DOI:10.4103/0976-7800.119001  PMID:24672189
Context: Sexual dysfunction (SD) among diabetic women is an important disorder. It has many negative effects on general health. Aims: This study aimed to compare SD status between diabetic and non-diabetic women. Settings and Design: This study was conducted on 200 women, half of them diabetic and the others as non-diabetic in Tohid Hospital (Sanandaj, Iran). Materials and Methods: The non-diabetic group was matched for age (±5 years) and education. Data were collected using an interview-based questionnaire containing demographic characteristics and female sexual function index (FSFI). Statistical Analysis Used : Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to assess and interpret the results. Results: Analyses of the data showed that low educational levels, longer duration of diabetes and poor controlled diabetes were associated with the lower FSFI scores. In both groups the prevalence of SDs for all FSFI domains was high. Furthermore, multivariate analysis showed that these three variables were associated with lower FSFI scores. Conclusions: Study confirms that Kurdish Iranian diabetic women are at an increased risk of SD. Low educational level, longer duration of diabetes, and poor controlled diabetes were associated with a lower FSFI score.
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CASE REPORTS
Lacunar infarction with oral contraceptives: An unusual case report
Sasmita Biswal
July-September 2013, 4(3):188-190
DOI:10.4103/0976-7800.118996  PMID:24672193
Combined oral contraceptives are one of the risk factor for stroke in women. We report a case of an arterial ischemic stroke due to lacunar infarction in a 35-year-old previously healthy female patient induced after 3 years on Sukhi an oral contraceptive after two times artificial abortions. A brain MRI finding was suggestive of lacunar infarction. Her symptoms improved after stopping the oral contraceptive and putting her on I.V heparin therapy.
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Conservative treatment of a femoral neck fracture following nail removal
Claudio Legnani, Alessandra Dondi, Luca Pietrogrande
July-September 2013, 4(3):191-194
DOI:10.4103/0976-7800.118995  PMID:24672194
With increased longevity, the management of fragility fractures in the elderly is becoming more frequent. In particular, hip fractures have considerable importance due to the significant morbidity and mortality. A 67-year-old woman underwent intramedullary nail (IMN) removal inserted for a pertrochanteric fracture that had occurred 20 months earlier. This was indicated due to continuous discomfort related to the protruding apex of the implant over the great trochanter. Due to pain persistence two days after surgery, a computed tomography (CT) scan was performed, documenting a minimally displaced impacted subcapital femoral neck fracture. Conservative management with close radiographic follow-up was conducted. After six months, the patient had returned to previous daily activities and a satisfactory range of motion was achieved without pain on walking. The purpose of our paper is to discuss the decision of removing hardware in the elderly osteoporotic patient and to analyze the possibility to conservatively treat an impacted minimally displaced subcapital fracture occurring after the removal of an IMN inserted previously for the treatment of a trochanteric fracture. In the elderly population with decreased bone quality, the removal of intramedullary implants of the proximal femur should be carefully evaluated, and osteoporotic patients undergoing reduction and fixation of femoral fractures should be encouraged to start antiosteoporotic therapy (bisphosphonate, teriparatide) to reduce the risk of further bone loss. Conservative treatment should be considered for the management of lesser symptomatic minimally displaced impacted fractures, where the inherent stability of the fracture allows rapid healing without further surgical attempts.
  - 3,486 447
Endometrial cartilaginous metaplasia: A case report with literature review
Sunita B Patil, Shilpa Narchal, Seema S More
July-September 2013, 4(3):195-197
DOI:10.4103/0976-7800.118994  PMID:24672195
Endometrial metaplasias are of two types, epithelial metaplasia which is commonly encountered and stromal metaplasia, unusually seen. This includes formation within endometrial stroma, islands of smooth muscle, cartilage, and bone. Endometrial stromal (cartilaginous) metaplasias are conditions frequently overlooked and misdiagnosed. Hence, a careful clinical and histopathological examination is required to avoid the misinterpretation of non-tumor cartilaginous foci as a component of malignant neoplasm. Herein, we report a rare case of endometrial cartilaginous metaplasia which was an incidental finding in a 38-year-old female with third degree uterovaginal prolapse.
  - 2,141 186
EDITORIAL
Midlife disorders
Sonia Malik
July-September 2013, 4(3):139-139
DOI:10.4103/0976-7800.118989  PMID:24672184
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LETTER TO EDITOR
Qualitative research in midlife health
Sanjay Kalra, Pooja Batra, Jena Bijayini
July-September 2013, 4(3):198-199
DOI:10.4103/0976-7800.118993  PMID:24672196
  - 1,645 204
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Correlation between clinical presentation and urodynamic findings in women attending urogynecology clinic
Deeksha Pandey, Gasser Anna, Ottenschlaeger Hana, Fuenfgeld Christian
July-September 2013, 4(3):153-159
DOI:10.4103/0976-7800.118992  PMID:24672187
Introduction: Urodynamic studies objectively observe lower urinary tract function and dysfunction so that an appropriate treatment can be planned. In the present study, we tried to evaluate the role of urodynamic studies in the final diagnosis and management plan in patients attending an urogynecology clinic. Materials and Methods: This observational study was conducted in an urogynecology clinic. 202 women were included. After detailed history, pelvic examination and introital sonography these women were subjected to urodynamic study. During the filling cystometry detrusor activity, first desire to void and bladder capacity was recorded. This was followed by urethral pressure measurements, when functional urethral length, maximum urethral closure pressure and stress urethral pressure profile was recorded. Results: Most prevalent complaint was mixed urinary incontinence (33.17%), followed by stress incontinence (31.68%) and urge incontinence (13.37%). According to the standard urodynamic definition 66.33% were normal in the population studied. None of the urodynamic parameters individually or in combination were found to be very useful for establishing a diagnosis. Conclusion: Establishment of the final diagnosis of urinary incontinence and planning of management should be based on detailed history, physical examination, bladder diaries, and careful interpretation of urodynamic data. Urodynamic study; however, doesn't seem to be imperative to establish a diagnosis in uncomplicated cases where symptoms and signs are reliable and correlating.
  - 2,668 324
Efficacy and tolerability of fixed dose combination of metoprolol and amlodipine in Indian patients with essential hypertension
N Srinivasa Rao, Abraham Oomman, PL Bindumathi, Vikram Sharma, Satish Rao, Latha Subramanya Moodahadu, Ashis Patnaik, B. R. Naveen Kumar
July-September 2013, 4(3):160-166
DOI:10.4103/0976-7800.119000  PMID:24672188
Background: This open-labeled, post-marketing study was conducted to assess the efficacy and tolerability of fixed dose combination of amlodipine and metoprolol extended release capsules in mild to moderate hypertension in adult Indian patients. Materials and Methods: Of 101 enrolled patients, 64 drug naοve patients were treated with regimen A (amlodipine 5 mg + metoprolol 25 mg) and those with prior history of hypertension ( n = 37) were treated with regimen B (amlodipine 5 mg + metoprolol 50 mg) for 8 weeks. Treatment response was assessed at week 4 and 8. Dose up titration to regimen B was carried out for those who failed to achieve the target blood pressure (BP) at week 4 in regimen A and additional antihypertensives were added to those in regimen B. Safety laboratory tests were performed at baseline and end of study. Results: Mean age (±SD) of patients was 53.36 (±11.26) years and body weight (±SD) 63.40 (10.03) kg. Ninety five patients (94.06%) were only hypertensive and 6 (5.94%) had hypertension with history of coronary artery disease; mean duration (±SD) of hypertension was 42.50 (48.07) months. At baseline, patients had a mean (±SD) systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) of 154.98 (±7.76) mmHg and 95.55 (±5.70) mmHg respectively. There was a statistically significant ( P < 0.001) reduction of 12.16% and 14.69% in SBP, 11.49% and 14.65% in DBP at week 4 and week 8 respectively, compared to baseline. Normalization of overall BP was achieved in 49.49% and 70.71% patients at week 4 and 8, respectively. Peripheral edema was reported in 2.97% (3/101) patients. Conclusion: This combination was safe, efficacious, and well-tolerated in study population.
  - 4,575 549
Study of addiction problems and morbidity among geriatric population in rural area of Aurangabad district
Vinod Mundada, Vijay Jadhav, AV Gaikwad
July-September 2013, 4(3):172-175
DOI:10.4103/0976-7800.118999  PMID:24672190
Research Question: What is the addiction problems and morbidity profile pattern of geriatric population in rural area? Objectives: i) To study the morbidity profile of elderly. ii) To study the addiction problems among elderly. Materials and Methods: The present study was carried out at the field practice area of Rural Health and Training Center (RHTC), Paithan of Government Medical College, Aurangabad during the period of September 1, 2006 to August 31, 2007. Total elderly population according to the definition at the field practice area of RHTC, Paithan was 3128. Enlisting of the study subjects was done by systematic random sampling by using Loksabha electoral list of 2005. A sample of 20% of total elderly population was taken by including every fifth elderly from the electoral list. Study Design: Cross-sectional study Settings: Field practice area of RHTC, Paithan of Government Medical College, Aurangabad. Participants: Elderly above 60 years of age. Sample Size: 625 which was 20% of total elderly at RHTC, Paithan. Statistical Analysis: Chi-square test. Results: a) The study found that the prevalence of addiction among males was 68.34%, the prevalence of various addictions were smoking 29.96%, alcohol 18.18%, tobacco chewing 29.29% and among females, 45.42% elderly females use to chew tobacco. b) Prevalence of cataract was 40.16%, joint pain - 23.04%, chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (COPD) - 7.52%, senescent forgetfulness - 10.88%, hemorrhoids - 8.64%, benign enlargement of prostate (BEP) - 7.20% in elderly males, hearing impairment - 24.8%, hypertension - 21.6%, diabetes mellitus - 13.92%, and anemia - 8.32%.
  - 2,773 297
Cross-cultural variation in symptom perception of hypoglycemia
Sanjay Kalra, Yatan Pal Singh Balhara, Ambrish Mithal
July-September 2013, 4(3):176-181
DOI:10.4103/0976-7800.118998  PMID:24672191
Background: Cross-cultural differences in attitudes and practices related to diabetes are well-known. Similar differences in symptom reporting of endocrine conditions such as menopause are well documented. Minimal literature is available on the cross-cultural variation in reporting of hypoglycemic symptoms. Aims: This cross-sectional study aimed to assess the symptoms of hypoglycemia encountered by diabetologists who deal with patients from different language groups from various states of North and West India and Nepal. Materials and Methods: Eighty three doctors from six Indian states and Nepal, attending a continuing medical education program were requested to fill a detailed, pre-tested, Likert scale based questionnaire which assessed the frequency and symptoms with which patients presented with hypoglycemia in their clinical practice. Data were analyzed based on geographic location of the diabetologists and language spoken by their patients (Hindi vs. Gujarati). Results: Gujarati-speaking patients tended to report to their doctors, a greater inability to work under pressure and a higher frequency of intense hunger during hypoglycemia. They were less likely to report specific adrenergic (inward trembling), neuroglycopenic (feeling down over nothing), and nocturnal (crumpled bedsheets upon waking up) symptoms. Conclusion: Significant cross-cultural differences related to the symptomatology of hypoglycemia are noted. Indian diabetologists should be aware of the varying presentation of hypoglycemia based on language and ethnic background.
  - 2,537 286
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