Journal of Mid-life Health Journal of Mid-life Health
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   2016| October-December  | Volume 7 | Issue 4  
    Online since December 14, 2016

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Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in pre- and post-menopausal women: A prospective study from apex institute of North India
Sandeep Sharma, Neelam Aggarwal, Bharti Joshi, Vanita Suri, Sanjay Badada
October-December 2016, 7(4):169-174
DOI:10.4103/0976-7800.195695  PMID:28096640
Background: The metabolic syndrome (MS) (syndrome X, insulin resistance syndrome) is a constellation of metabolic abnormalities and a complex predisease state that predicts future development of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. Menopausal transition and postmenopausal state are considered as a vulnerable period for developing MS, and this increased risk has been attributed to decreasing estrogen levels with an increasing risk of insulin resistance following menopause. Aims and Objectives: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of MS and its components in pre- and post-menopausal women from North India. Methodology: This is a cross-sectional study of 350 women in the age group of 45-55 years attending gynecology clinic in a tertiary center of North India. Details of sociodemographic data, menopausal history, reproductive, and medical profile were obtained. Then, waist circumference, body mass index (BMI), and blood pressure were recorded. A venous blood sample was collected for fasting blood glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. MS was defined according to the modified National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Results: The mean age was 49.09 ± 2.2 years in premenopausal and 49.54 ± 2.8 years in postmenopausal women. The prevalence of MS in the study group was 62.6%. Occurrence of MS was higher in older and obese women. Abnormal waist circumference was the most prevalent component (87%) of MS and in terms of odd ratio, correlation was highest for BMI followed by total cholesterol and waist-hip ratio. Conclusion: We should target obesity and deranged lipid profile by bringing out changes in lifestyle and dietary habits to decrease the higher prevalence of MS and the risk of cardiovascular diseases.
  12,352 667 4
Prevalence of female sexual dysfunction among Indian fertile females
Vineet V Mishra, Sakshi Nanda, Bhumika Vyas, Rohina Aggarwal, Sumesh Choudhary, Suwa Ram Saini
October-December 2016, 7(4):154-158
DOI:10.4103/0976-7800.195692  PMID:28096637
Background: Female sexual dysfunction (FSD) is described as difficulty experienced by a female during any stage of a normal sexual activity including physical pleasure, desire, arousal, or orgasm. There are various factors responsible for FSD including psychological status of a person, gynecological or medical problems, long use of certain drugs, and social beliefs. Objectives: To study the prevalence and various factors associated with FSD. Materials and Methods: Study Design - This study design was a cross-sectional observational study conducted at Tertiary Care Centre, in Ahmedabad from June 2015 to March 2016. Sample Size - One hundred and fifty-three fertile females in reproductive age group (20-47 years) were included in the study. Written and informed consent was obtained from all the females. Methods - FSD was assessed with a detailed 19-item female sexual function index questionnaire. All six domains of sexual dysfunction, i.e., desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, and pain were studied. Various associated factors such as gynecological or psychological problems were also studied. Exclusion - Infertile patients were excluded from the study. Results: The prevalence of FSD was 55.55% among 153 fertile females. FSD was more prevalent in the age group of 26-30 years and with duration of marriage >16 years. FSD was also more common in females with middle education and those belonging to upper middle socioeconomic status. Psychological stress was significantly associated with FSD. Conclusion: It is right of every female to lead healthy sexual life as it is key to happiness in marriage. Females with FSD can be managed with proper counseling and treating the underlying etiology.
  8,791 2,440 -
Intestinal obstruction associated with ovarian remnant in postmenopausal female
Ridhima Gupta, Pushpender Gupta
October-December 2016, 7(4):185-188
DOI:10.4103/0976-7800.195698  PMID:28096643
Ovarian remnant syndrome (ORS) is a rare condition, in which the ovarian tissue is inadvertently left behind after difficult oophorectomy. The most common preexisting conditions associated for this complication include endometriosis, pelvic inflammatory disease, and prior abdominal surgery as in these conditions, removal of ovarian tissue becomes difficult. This is likely due to the presence of the dense fibrotic adhesions between an ovary and the surrounding structures. This residual ovarian tissue can become functional and cystic. A 56-year-old multigravida postmenopausal female was diagnosed with intestinal obstruction. She had multiple abdominal surgeries in the past, including cholecystectomy, appendectomy, hysterectomy, and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. Patient underwent exploratory laparotomy. Intraoperatively, extensive adhesions and scarring of bowel wall were present and approximately 15 cm proximal to the terminal ileum, a small bowel mesenteric nodule was present. Histopathology of the mesenteric nodule was consistent with the diagnosis of overian remnant. ORS can be prevented with careful resection of the entire ovarian tissue during the difficulty oophorectomy so that no ovarian tissue is left behind.
  8,815 288 -
Opportunistic salpingectomy: Remove the tubes and save the ovaries
Neelam Aggarwal, Sudhaa Sharma
October-December 2016, 7(4):153-153
DOI:10.4103/0976-7800.195691  PMID:28096636
  2,882 3,690 -
Awareness of osteoporosis in postmenopausal Indian women: An evaluation of Osteoporosis Health Belief Scale
Nirmal Raj Gopinathan, Ramesh Kumar Sen, Prateek Behera, Sameer Aggarwal, Niranjan Khandelwal, Mitali Sen
October-December 2016, 7(4):180-184
DOI:10.4103/0976-7800.195697  PMID:28096642
Context: The level of awareness about osteoporosis in postmenopausal women who are the common sufferers. Aims: This study aims to evaluate the level of awareness in postmenopausal women using the Osteoporosis Health Belief Scale (OHBS). Settings and Design: Osteoporosis has emerged as a common health problem in geriatric population. A proactive role needs to be played for preventing its consequences. Before initiating any preventive measures, an evaluation of awareness level of the target population is necessary. The questionnaire-based study design was used for this study. Subjects and Methods: A questionnaire (OHBS)-based study in 100 postmenopausal women in Chandigarh was conducted. The bone mineral density (BMD) was measured in each case by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) of the participants were noted. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was conducted to evaluate any correlation between the various components of the OHBS and the BMD. Results: No statistically significant difference was noted in the seven component parameters of OHBS among the normal, osteopenic, and osteoporotic women suggesting that the health belief regarding susceptibility is not much different between the three groups of the study population. A statistically significant difference between the mean BMI of normal and osteoporotic population was noted. Conclusions: The results show that there is a great deficit in the awareness level of postmenopausal Indian women regarding osteoporosis. Most of the women were unaware of the condition and the means to prevent it. The study emphasizes that health care professionals have lot of ground to cover to decrease the incidence of osteoporosis and its associated health problem.
  5,797 538 6
Association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and bone mineral density in normal postmenopausal women
Vasundhara Kamineni, Akkenapally Prasanna Latha, K Ramathulasi
October-December 2016, 7(4):163-168
DOI:10.4103/0976-7800.195694  PMID:28096639
Aim: This study was conducted with the objective of assessing serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) in postmenopausal women (PMW), to detect osteopenia or osteoporosis in PMW and to establish a correlation between serum 25(OH)D levels and bone mineral density (BMD). Materials and Methods: A total of 100 healthy PMW were selected, and a prospective observational study was conducted to correlate the BMD with serum 25(OH)D levels. Their laboratory investigations along with serum 25(OH)D levels were done. Their BMD was assessed with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at lumbar spine and neck of femur; T-scores were derived. Correlation analysis was done to investigate the relationship between serum 25(OH)D levels and BMD. Results: The proportion of osteoporosis at the hip was 31.9% in deficient group, 16.1% in insufficient, and 18.2% in sufficient group and at lumbar spine, it was 27.7%, 16.1%, and 22.7%, respectively. Forty-seven percent of PMW had deficient (<20 ng/ml) serum 25(OH)D levels and 31% had insufficiency. T-score at hip in deficient group was −2.05 ± 0.25, and in an insufficient group, it was −1.79 ± 0.13; T-score at lumbar spine was −1.92 ± 0.12 and −1.79 ± 0.12, respectively, but both were not statistically significant. Osteoporosis was seen in 24%, osteopenia in 55% at hip level and 23% and 59% respectively at lumbar spine. There was no association between serum 25(OH)D levels and BMD neither at hip nor at lumbar spine ( P = 0.51 and P = 0.79 respectively). Conclusion: In this study, among our cohort of patients there was no correlation between serum 25(OH)D levels and BMD. However, Vitamin D deficiency coexists with low BMD. Vitamin D insufficiency is a common risk factor for osteoporosis associated with increased bone remodeling and low bone mass.
  4,826 480 4
Assessment of periodontal health status in postmenopausal women visiting dental hospital from in and around Meerut city: Cross-sectional observational study
D Deepa, Gazal Jain
October-December 2016, 7(4):175-179
DOI:10.4103/0976-7800.195696  PMID:28096641
Background: Puberty, menses, pregnancy, and menopause are the different phases of a woman's life which have a varied influence on oral health. During the menopause, women go through biological and endocrine changes, particularly in their sex steroid hormone production which affects their health. Because the oral mucosa contains estrogen receptors, variations in hormone levels can be seen directly in the oral cavity leading to a few oral conditions and diseases seen more frequently during postmenopausal years. Objective: The objective of this study is to assess periodontal health status in postmenopausal women in and around Meerut city. Materials and Methods: The study sample comprised ninety postmenopausal women. History of menopause was recorded, and the dental examinations were done by measuring the following parameters of periodontal health: plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), bleeding on probing (BOP), pocket probing depth, and Russell's periodontal index. The collected data were subjected to statistical analyses. Results and Conclusion: In the study group, mean age was 55 years, mean missing teeth were 10.3, mean duration of menopause was 9.23. Eleven percent females were completely edentulous, and 5 females had never brushed. Mean PI-s was 1.99, mean GI-s was 1.74, mean BOP was 52.85, and mean Russell's periodontal index was 4.34. Eleven patients were at the initial stages of destructive periodontal disease, 34 had established destructive periodontal disease while thirty patients had the terminal periodontal disease. These findings suggest that females after menopause are at a risk of developing destructive periodontal disease if proper oral hygiene practices are not followed.
  4,155 449 4
Coexisting genital malignancies with tuberculosis: A case series with review of literature
Avantika Gupta, Sangeeta Gupta, Usha Manaktala, Nita Khurana
October-December 2016, 7(4):159-162
DOI:10.4103/0976-7800.195693  PMID:28096638
Objective: To study a case series of genital malignancies coexisting with genital tuberculosis. Materials and Methods: A series of three cases with known genital malignancies were found to have coexisting genital tuberculosis on subsequent workup. Results: First case was a 45 years old lady who underwent staging laparotomy for ovarian cancer. On histopathology examination, there was coexisting tuberculosis with papillary serous carcinoma. Second case was 53 years old postmenopausal lady who underwent extrafascial hysterectomy along with pelvic lymph node dissection. Histopathology showed tubercular changes along with endometrial malignancy. Third patient was a 50 years old postmenopausal lady with stage IIA carcinoma of cervix. She underwent radical hysterectomy and histopathology revealed tubercular changes in pelvic lymph nodes. All patients were given antitubercular therapy for 9 months in postoperative period along with adjuvant therapy. Conclusion: Although diagnosed as an incidental finding in the case series, genital tuberculosis may present in patients with malignancies as a result of immunosupression.
  3,684 580 -
Peri and post-menopausal women with complex adnexal masses, ascites, and raised CA-125: Is it ovarian cancer or tuberculosis?
Rashmi Bagga, Tanuja Muthyala, Subhas Chandra Saha, Shalini Gainder, Pradip Kumar Saha, Radhika Srinivasan, Arvind Rajwanshi, Nalini Gupta
October-December 2016, 7(4):193-196
DOI:10.4103/0976-7800.195700  PMID:28096645
Pelvic and peritoneal tuberculosis may resemble advanced ovarian cancer due to the presence of ascites, complex adnexal masses, peritoneal deposits and raised CA-125 level, especially in peri- and postmenopausal women. Other common features among women with these two conditions are abdominal pain and distension, weight loss and reduced appetite. As the treatment of pelvic-peritoneal tuberculosis is completely different from that of ovarian cancer, it is important to reach a correct diagnosis. Sometimes women with pelvic-peritoneal tuberculosis may be subjected to a laparotomy for suspected ovarian cancer which is likely to increase their morbidity. In the present article, we report ten women in the peri- and post-menopausal age group where this diagnostic dilemma arose of whom seven were diagnosed only after a laparotomy had been performed for suspected ovarian cancer due to adnexal masses with ascites and raised CA-125 level. Ascitic fluid showing lymphocytic predominance, raised ADA level and absence of malignant cells are pointers to consider the possibility of pelvic- peritoneal tuberculosis, especially in endemic countries like India. In such situations, an effort should be made to obtain a cytological or histopathological diagnosis of either condition by ultrasound guided needle biopsy or laparoscopically obtained biopsy rather that proceeding with laparotomy for suspected ovarian cancer.
  3,774 346 -
Postmenopausal hyperandrogenism of ovarian origin: A clinicopathologic study of five cases
S Ajith, George Beena, Nitu Mariam Mathew, EK Omana
October-December 2016, 7(4):189-192
DOI:10.4103/0976-7800.195699  PMID:28096644
In postmenopausal women presenting with virilization and elevated testosterone levels, laparoscopic salpingo-oophorectomy should be considered after exclusion of adrenal causes. A clinicopathological study was conducted among those women who presented with features of hyperandrogenism in our postmenopausal clinic over a period of 2 years. Relevant past medical and surgical histories were elicited. Basic hormonal evaluation and radiological imaging were done. Laparoscopic bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy was done. Six weeks postoperatively, serum testosterone was undetectable with significant clinical improvement. There was no recurrence of symptoms during the follow-up period of 2 years. Treatment of postmenopausal women with hyperandrogenism and virilization with laparoscopic bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy is effective if she has no pronounced ovarian enlargement or adrenal tumor on imaging. An extensive endocrine testing and a detailed search for metastatic disease may be unnecessary.
  3,073 228 -